Strategies for consoling the infant with colic: Fact or fiction?

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      “Persistent” crying has been labeled a developmental crises of parenthood, given the feelings of inadequacy it engenders in new parents. Nearly one of five infants has colic, or more than 700,000 infants in the United States each year. Because there is no “cure” for colic, therapeutic approaches are generally aimed at ”containment” of the crying. Such approaches can be classified as feeding/formula modifications, pharmacological agents, and sensory stimulation approaches. This report examines the evidence supporting or refuting the utility of each approach.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • American Academy of Pediatrics
        • Committee on Nutrition
        Soy-protein formulas: Recommendations for use in infant feeding.
        Pediatrics. 1983; 72: 359
        • Anderson G.C.
        Infant colic: A possible solution.
        Maternal Child Nursing. 1983; 8: 185
        • Asch-Goodkin J.
        Taking colic for a ride.
        Contemporary Pediatrics. 1989; 6: 85-92
        • Asnes R.S.
        • Mones R.L.
        Infantile colic: A review.
        Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1982; 4: 57-62
        • Ayllon T.
        Stopping baby's colic.
        Putnam, New York, NY1989
        • Barr R.G.
        • McMullan S.J.
        • Spiess H.
        • Leduc D.G.
        • Yaremko J.
        • Barfield R.
        • Francoeur T.E.
        • Hunziker U.A.
        Carrying as colic “therapy”: A randomized controlled trial.
        Pediatrics. 1991; 87: 623-630
        • Birdson M.
        Infantile colic.
        in: Shirkey H.C. Pediatric therapy. ed. 5. Mosby, St Louis, MO1975: 617-619
        • Brackbill Y.
        Cumulative effects of continuous stimulation on arousal levels in infants.
        Child Development. 1971; 42: 26-31
        • Brazelton T.B.
        Crying in infancy.
        Pediatrics. 1962; 29: 579-588
        • Brazelton T.B.
        Application of cry research to clinical perspectives.
        in: Lester B.M. Boukydis C.F.Z. Infant crying: Theoretical and research perspectives. Plenum, New York, NY1985: 325-340
        • Byrne J.
        • Horowit F.
        Rocking as a soothing intervention: The influence of direction and type of movement.
        Infant Behavior and Development. 1981; 4: 207-218
        • Callis P.M.
        The testing and comparison of the intrauterine sound against other methods for calming babies.
        Midwives Chronicle and Nursing Notes. 1984; 97: 336-338
        • Campos R.G.
        Soothing pain-elicited distress in infants with swaddling and pacifiers.
        Child Development. 1989; 60: 781-792
        • Carey W.B.
        Psychologic sequelae of early infancy health crisis.
        in: Swartz J.L. Swartz L.H. Vulnerable infants: A psychological dilemma. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY1977: 195-202
        • Carey W.B.
        The importance of temperament-environment interaction for child health and development.
        in: Lewis M. Rosenblum L.A. The uncommon child. Plenum, New York, NY1981
        • Carey W.B.
        “Colic”—Primary excessive crying as an infant-environment interaction.
        Pediatric Clinics of North America. 1984; 31: 993-1005
        • Carey W.B.
        Temperament and increased weight gain in infants.
        Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1985; 6: 128-133
        • Clark D.L.
        • Cordero L.
        • Goss K.C.
        • Manos D.
        Effects of rocking on neuromuscular development in the premature.
        The Biology of the Neonate. 1989; 56: 306-314
        • DeLucia L.
        The influence of rocking stimulation on the crying behavior of infants.
        Bulletin of Brown University Child Study Center. 1969; 3: 1-2
        • Diescher R.W.
        • Goers S.S.
        A study of early and later introduction of solids into the infant diet.
        Journal of Pediatrics. 1954; 45: 191-199
        • Evans L.E.
        Impact of infant massage on the neonate and the parent-infant relationship.
        in: Gunzenhauser N. Advances in Touch: New Implications in Human Development. Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products, Inc, New Brunswick, NJ1990
        • Evans R.W.
        • Allardyce R.A.
        • Fergusson D.M.
        • Taylor B.
        Maternal diet and infantile colic in breast-fed infants.
        Lancet. 1981; 1: 1340-1342
        • Farran C.
        Infant colic.
        Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY1983
        • Forsythe B.W.C.
        Colic and the effect of changing formulas: A double-blind, multiple crossover study.
        The Journal of Pediatrics. 1989; 115: 521-526
        • Forsythe B.W.C.
        • McCarthy P.L.
        • Leventhal J.M.
        Problems of early infancy, formula changes, and mother's beliefs about their infants.
        Journal of Pediatrics. 1985; 106: 1012-1017
        • Geertsma M.A.
        • Hyams J.S.
        Colic—A pain syndrome of infancy?.
        Pediatric Clinics of North America. 1989; 36: 905-919
        • Giacoman S.L.
        Hunger and motor restraint on arousal and visual attention in the infant.
        Child Development. 1971; 42: 606-610
        • Gillies C.
        Infant colic: Is there anything new?.
        Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 1987; 1: 305-312
        • Gordin P.C.
        Assessing and managing agitation in a critically ill infant.
        Maternal-Child Nursing. 1990; 15: 26-32
        • Hardoin R.A.
        • Henslee J.A.
        • Christenson C.P.
        • Christenson P.J.
        • White M.
        Colic medication and apparent life-threatening events.
        Clinical Pediatrics. 1991; 30: 281-285
        • Harley L.M.
        Fussing and crying in young infants.
        Clinical Pediatrics. 1969; 8: 138-141
        • Harvey S.C.
        Hypnotics and sedatives.
        in: Gilman A.G. The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics. ed. 7. Macmillan, New York, NY1985: 339-445
        • Heinl T.
        The baby massage book: Using touch for better bonding and happier babies.
        in: Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ1983: 55
        • Hide D.
        • Guyer B.
        Prevalence of infant colic.
        Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1982; 57: 559-560
        • Holmes C.A.
        Infantile colic.
        Clinical Pediatrics. 1969; 8: 566-569
        • Hunziker U.A.
        • Barr R.G.
        Increased carrying reduces infant crying: a randomized controlled trial.
        Pediatrics. 1986; 77: 641-648
        • Hyams J.S.
        • Geertsma M.A.
        • Etienne N.L.
        • Treem W.R.
        Colonic hydrogen production in infants with colic.
        The Journal of Pediatrics. 1989; 115: 592-594
        • Hwang C.P.
        • Danielsson B.
        Dicyclomine hydrochloride in infantile colic.
        British Medical Journal. 1985; 291: 1014
        • Illingworth R.S.
        Three-months colic.
        Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1954; 29: 65-174
        • Jakobsson I.
        • Lindberg T.
        Cow's milk proteins cause infantile colic in breast-fed infants: A double blind crossover study.
        Pediatrics. 1983; 71: 268-271
        • Jones S.
        Crying baby, sleepless nights.
        Warner, New York, NY1983
        • Jorup S.
        Colonic hyperstalsis in neurolabile infants.
        Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. 1952; 85 (Suppl): 1-10
        • Keefe M.R.
        Irritable infant syndrome: Theoretical perspectives and practice implications.
        Advances in Nursing Science. 1988; 10: 70-78
        • Klougart D.C.
        • Nilsson D.C.
        • Jacobson D.C.
        Infantile colic treated by chiropractors: A prospective study of 316 cases.
        Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1989; 12: 281-288
        • Korner F.
        • Thomas B.
        The relative efficacy of contact and vestibular proprioceptive stimulation in soothing neonates.
        Child Development. 1972; 43: 443-453
        • Landau R.
        Infant crying and fussing: Findings from a cross-cultural study.
        Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1982; 13: 427-444
        • Levine M.I.
        • Bell A.I.
        The treatment of colic in infancy by use of the pacifier.
        Journal of Pediatrics. 1956; 37: 750-755
        • Liebman W.M.
        Infantile colic association with lactose and milk intolerance.
        Journal of the American Medical Association. 1981; 245: 732-733
        • Lothe L.
        • Ivarsson S.A.
        • Lindberg T.
        Cow's milk formula as a cause of infantile colic: A double blind crossover study.
        Pediatrics. 1982; 70: 7-10
        • Lothe L.
        • Lindberg T.
        Cow's milk whey protein elicits symptoms of infantile colic in colicky formula-fed infants: A double-blind crossover study.
        Pediatrics. 1989; 83: 262-266
        • Martin G.B.
        • Clark R.D.
        Distress crying in neonates: Species and peer specificity.
        Developmental Psychology. 1982; 18: 3-9
      1. New prescribing information on Bentyl (Dicyclomine). 1984, November 19 (Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals Bulletin)
        • Miller J.J.
        • McVeagh P.
        • Fleet G.H.
        • Petocz P.
        • Brand J.C.
        Breath hydrogen excretion in infants with colic.
        Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1989; 64: 725-729
        • Mills N.M.
        Acute pain behavior in infants and toddlers.
        in: Funk S. Tournquist E. Key Aspects of Comfort. Springer, New York, NY1989: 52-59
        • Moore D.J.
        • Robb T.A.
        • Davidson G.P.
        Breath hydrogen response to milk containing lactose in colicky and noncolicky infants.
        The Journal of Pediatrics. 1988; 113: 979-984
        • Neal M.V.
        The relationship between vestibular stimulation and the developmental behavior of the premature infant.
        in: Thesis. New York University, 1967 (University Microfilms No. 70–7342)
        • O'Donovan J.C.
        Infantile colic, or what to do until the fourth month comes.
        Comprehensive Therapy. 1980; 6: 9-12
        • Orenstein S.R.
        Effect of pacifier use on behavior of infants with gastroesophageal reflux (GER).
        in: Abstract presented at the Annual meeting of the Society of Behavioral Pediatrics, Anaheim, CA1987, April
        • Oseas R.S.
        • Phelps D.L.
        • Kaplan S.A.
        Near fatal hyperkalemia from a dangerous treatment for colic.
        Pediatrics. 1982; 69: 117-118
        • Paradise J.L.
        Maternal and other factors in the etiology of infantile colic.
        Journal of the American Medical Association. 1966; 197: 191-199
        • Partridge E.
        Origins. A short etymological dictionary of modern english.
        MacMillan, New York, NY1958
        • Pederson D.R.
        The soothing effect of rocking as determined by the direction and frequency of movement.
        Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. 1975; 7: 237-243
        • Pinyerd B.J.
        Identification and management of colic in an outpatient setting.
        1987 (Unpublished investigation)
        • Pinyerd B.J.
        Multiple measures of infant crying: A pilot study.
        1991 (Unpublished investigation)
        • Pinyerd B.J.
        • Zipf W.B.
        Colic: Idiopathic, excessive, infant crying.
        Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 1989; 4: 147-161
        • Redaksie V.
        Infantile colic and dicyclomine (editorial).
        South African Medical Journal. 1985; 68: 831-832
        • Rowell P.A.
        Infantile colic: Reviewing the situation.
        Pediatric Nursing. 1978; 4: 20-21
        • Rubin S.P.
        • Prendergast N.
        Infantile colic: incidence and treatment in a Norfolk community.
        Childcare, Health, and Development. 1984; 10: 219-226
        • Sagi A.
        • Hoffman M.L.
        Empathic distress in the newborn.
        Developmental Psychology. 1976; 12: 175-176
        • Sammons W.A.H.
        The self-calmed baby: A liberating approach to parenting your infant.
        Little Brown, New York, NY1989
        • Schmitt B.D.
        Infants who do not sleep through the night.
        Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1981; 2: 20-23
        • Sethi K.S.
        • Sethi J.K.
        Simethicone in the management of infantile colic.
        The Practitioner. 1988; 232: 508
        • Simner M.L.
        Newborn's response to the cry of another infant.
        Developmental Psychology. 1971; 5: 136-150
        • Taitz L.S.
        Soy feeding in infancy.
        Archives of Diseases in Children. 1982; 77: 814-816
        • Taylor W.C.
        A study of infantile colic.
        Canadian Medical Association. 1957; 76: 458-461
        • Thomas D.W.
        • McGilligan K.
        • Eisenberg L.D.
        • Lieberman B.M.
        • Rissman E.M.
        Infant colic and type of milk feeding.
        American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1987; 141: 451-453
        • Thompson P.E.
        • Harris C.C.
        • Bitowski B.E.
        Effects of infant colic on the family: Implications for practice.
        Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing. 1986; 9: 273-285
        • Tripp J.
        Baby, please don't cry.
        Mother's Today. 1986; 22: 31-32
        • Weissbluth M.
        Crybabies: Coping with colic.
        Berkley, New York, NY1984
        • Weissbluth M.
        • Davis A.T.
        • Poncher J.
        Night-waking in 4- to 8-month-old infants.
        Journal of Pediatrics. 1984; 104: 477-480
        • Wessel M.A.
        • Cobb J.C.
        • Jackson E.B.
        • Harris G.S.
        • Detwiler A.C.
        Paroxysmal fussing in infancy and something called colic.
        Pediatrics. 1954; 14: 421-434
        • White P.J.
        Classification and treatment of infantile colic or gastroenterospasm.
        Medical Clinics of North America. 1936; 20: 511-525
        • White P.J.
        Management of infantile colic.
        American Journal of Diseases in Childhood. 1979; 133: 995-996
        • Wolff P.H.
        The causes, controls, and organization of behavior in the neonate.
        Psychological Issues. 1966; 5: 1-105
        • Wolff P.W.
        The development of behavioral states and the expression of emotions in early infancy: New proposals for investigation.
        University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL1987
        • Woodham C.
        The mystery behind colic.
        Community Outlook. 1990; 86: 19-22