- •There is a need to comprehensively evaluate second victim peer-support programs.
- •We examined the RISE program using two surveys and a mixed-method analysis.
- •Adaptive design and interplay with organizational culture contributed to success.
- •Challenges included varied preference for support and overcoming cultural barriers.
- •Organizational culture can be an obstacle and facilitator for RISE-like programs.
Design and Methods
- Feedback from incident reporting: Information and action to improve patient safety.Quality & Safety in Health Care. 2009; 18: 11-21https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2007.024166
- The second victim experience and support tool: Validation of an organizational resource for assessing second victim effects and the quality of support resources.Journal of Patient Safety. 2017; 13: 93-102https://doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000129
- Psychological first aid.(Retrieved from)Johns Hopkins Universityhttps://www.coursera.org/learn/psychological-first-aid#Date: 2017
- Psychological debriefing and the workplace: Defining a concept, controversies and guidelines for intervention.Australian Psychologist. 2003; 38: 144-150https://doi.org/10.1080/00050060310001707147
- Resilience and death: The nursing professional in the care of children and adolescents with life-limiting illnesses.Ciencia E Saude Coletiva. 2014; 19: 4869-4878https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320141912.18862013
- Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams.Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999; 44: 350-383https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999
- The experiences of risk managers in providing emotional support for health care workers after adverse events.Journal of Healthcare Risk Management. 2016; 35: 14-21https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrm.21219
- Implementing the RISE second victim support programme at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: A case study.BMJ Open. 2016; 6https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011708
- Does one size fit all? Assessing the need for organizational second victim support programs.Journal of Patient Safety. 2017; (Jun 30. [Epub ahead of print])https://doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000321
- Health care workers as second victims of medical errors.Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej. 2011; 121: 101-107
- Upaya program: G.R.A.C.E.: Training in compassion-based interactions in the clinician/patient encounter.(Retrieved from)https://www.upaya.org/program/?id=1010Date: 2017
- Patient safety learning systems: A systematic review and qualitative synthesis.Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series. 2017; 17: 1-23
- Social policy for children & families: A risk and resilience perspective.Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif2006
- Looking at sentinel events along the continuum of patient safety.Joint Commission Perspectives. 2010; 30: 3-5
- Josie's story.Atlantic Monthly Press, New York2009
- To err is human: Building a safer health system.National Academic Press, 2000
- Implementation of a “second victim” program in a pediatric hospital.American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 2015; 72: 563-567https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp140650
- An introduction to the social resilience model.(Retrieved from)
- Qualitative research: Standards, challenges, and guidelines.Lancet. 2001; 358: 483-488https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05627-6
- Safe practices for better healthcare—2010 update: A consensus report.NQF, Washington, DC2010
- How to develop a second victim support program: A toolkit for health care organizations.Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2012; 38 (193): 235-240https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-7250(12)38030-6
- Implementing and validating a comprehensive unit-based safety program.Journal of Patient Safety. 2005; 1: 33-40
- Patient safety culture and the second victim phenomenon: Connecting culture to staff distress in nurses.Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2016; 42: 377-386https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-7250(16)42053-2
- The natural history of recovery for the healthcare provider “second victim” after adverse patient events.Quality & Safety in Health Care. 2009; 18: 325-330https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2009.032870
- Caring for our own: Deploying a systemwide second victim rapid response team.Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2010; 36: 233-240https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-7250(10)36038-7
- The safety attitudes questionnaire: Psychometric properties, benchmarking data, and emerging research.BMC Health Services Research. 2006; 644https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-6-44
- Development of a short-form learning organization survey: The LOS-27.Medical Care Research and Review. 2012; 69: 432-459https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558712448135
- Hospital survey on patient safety culture.Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD2004
- Implementing new practices: An empirical study of organizational learning in hospital intensive care units.Management Science. 2007; 53: 894-907https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1060.0692
- Beyond blame: Cultural barriers to medical incident reporting.Social Science and Medicine. 2005; 60: 1927-1935https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.08.055
- Risk managers' descriptions of programs to support second victims after adverse events.Journal of Healthcare Risk Management. 2015; 34: 30-40https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrm.21169
- Medical error: The second victim.British Medical Journal. 2000; 320: 726-727https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7237.726