Advertisement

Sleep and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Management Among Children, Adolescents, and Emerging Young Adults: A Systematic Review

      Highlights

      • Individual with T1DM may have worse sleep but the evidence is mixed.
      • Sleep duration, quality and timing predict undesirable T1DM management.
      • Self-care behaviors mediate the sleep-T1DM relationship.

      Abstract

      Background

      Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses among the youth. Emerging evidence has suggested poor sleep as a risk factor for glycemic control. This review aimed to examine the associations between sleep characteristics and diabetes management in children, adolescents, and emerging young adults with T1DM.

      Methods

      Following PRISMA guidelines, the authors searched articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from 2000 through August 2020. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, observational studies and clinical trials that examined sleep and diabetes management among individuals with T1DM (up to 25 years old) were selected for review.

      Results

      Twenty-four articles met the review criteria. Most studies did not report differences in self-report sleep between individuals with and without T1DM. However, several studies using objective sleep measures (actigraph and PSG) suggested shorter sleep duration and worse sleep quality in individuals with T1DM. Higher A1C levels and undesirable T1DM self-care behaviors were associated with short and long sleep duration, poor sleep quality, sleep disturbances, and irregular sleep, particularly among adolescent boys, young men and those from immigrant families. Self-care behaviors mediated the associations between sleep and subsequent A1C levels.

      Conclusions

      Too much or too little sleep, poor sleep quality, sleep disturbances and sleep variability are associated with undesirable T1DM management. Although more research is needed, our findings indicate the importance of including sleep education in the plan of care for children, adolescents and emerging young adults with T1DM.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      References

        • Adler A.
        • Gavan M.Y.
        • Tauman R.
        • Phillip M.
        • Shalitin S.
        Do children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes have increased prevalence of sleep disorders?.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2017; 18: 450-458https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12419
        • Bächle C.
        • Lange K.
        • Stahl-Pehe A.
        • Castillo K.
        • Holl R.W.
        • Giani G.
        • Rosenbauer J.
        Associations between HbA1c and depressive symptoms in young adults with early-onset type 1 diabetes.
        Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015; 55: 48-58
        • Bei B.
        • Allen N.B.
        • Nicholas C.L.
        • Dudgeon P.
        • Murray G.
        • Trinder J.
        Actigraphy-assessed sleep during school and vacation periods: A naturalistic study of restricted and extended sleep opportunities in adolescents.
        Journal of Sleep Research. 2014; 23: 107-117
        • Bergner E.M.
        • Williams R.
        • Hamburger E.R.
        • Lyttle M.
        • Davis A.C.
        • Malow B.
        • Jaser S.S.
        Sleep in teens with type 1 diabetes: Perspectives from adolescents and their caregivers.
        The Diabetes Educator. 2018; 44: 541-548
        • Buxton O.M.
        • Pavlova M.
        • Reid E.W.
        • Wang W.
        • Simonson D.C.
        • Adler G.K.
        Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men.
        Diabetes. 2010; 59: 2126-2133
        • Cappuccio F.P.
        • D’Elia L.
        • Strazzullo P.
        • Miller M.A.
        Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Diabetes Care. 2010, Feb; 33: 414-420
        • Caruso N.C.
        • Radovanovic B.
        • Kennedy J.D.
        • Couper J.
        • Kohler M.
        • Kavanagh P.S.
        • Lushington K.
        Sleep, executive functioning and behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
        Sleep Medicine. 2014; 15: 1490-1499
        • Dietetics, A. o. N. a
        Evidence analysis manual: Steps in the academy evidence analysis process.
        (Retrieved April 7 from)
        • Dijk D.-J.
        Slow-wave sleep, diabetes, and the sympathetic nervous system.
        Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008; 105: 1107-1108
        • Donga E.
        • Van Dijk M.
        • Van Dijk J.G.
        • Biermasz N.R.
        • Lammers G.-J.
        • Van Kralingen K.
        • Romijn J.A.
        Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 1573-1577
        • Estrada C.L.
        • Danielson K.K.
        • Drum M.L.
        • Lipton R.B.
        Insufficient sleep in young patients with diabetes and their families.
        Biological Research for Nursing. 2012; 14: 48-54
        • Frye S.S.
        • Perfect M.M.
        • Silva G.E.
        Diabetes management mediates the association between sleep duration and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        Sleep Medicine. 2019; 60: 132-138
        • Griggs S.
        • Redeker N.S.
        • Grey M.
        Sleep characteristics in young adults with type 1 diabetes.
        Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2019; 150: 17-26
        • Happe S.
        • Treptau N.
        • Ziegler R.
        • Harms E.
        Restless legs syndrome and sleep problems in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1.
        Neuropediatrics. 2005; 36: 98-103
        • Hazen R.A.
        • Fehr K.K.
        • Fidler A.
        • Cousino M.K.
        • MacLeish S.A.
        • Gubitosi-Klug R.
        Sleep disruption in adolescents with Type1 diabetes mellitus: Relationships with adherence and diabetes control.
        Diabetes Management. 2015; 5: 257-265
        • Jaser S.S.
        • Ellis D.
        Sleep in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: Associations with diabetes management and glycemic control.
        Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine. 2016; 4: 49-55
        • Jaser S.S.
        • Foster N.C.
        • Nelson B.A.
        • Kittelsrud J.M.
        • DiMeglio L.A.
        • Quinn M.
        • Network T.D.E.C.
        Sleep in children with type 1 diabetes and their parents in the T1D exchange.
        Sleep Medicine. 2017; 39: 108-115
        • Jaser S.S.
        • Hamburger E.R.
        • Bergner E.M.
        • Williams R.
        • Slaughter J.C.
        • Simmons J.H.
        • Malow B.A.
        Sleep coach intervention for teens with type 1 diabetes: Randomized pilot study.
        Pediatr Diabetes. 2020; 21: 473-478
        • Ji X.
        • Saylor J.
        • Liu J.
        The interactive effect of habitual midday napping and nighttime sleep duration on impaired fasting glucose risk in healthy adolescents.
        Sleep Medicine. 2019; 64: 77-84
        • Kostkova M.
        • Durdik P.
        • Ciljakova M.
        • Vojtkova J.
        • Sujanska A.
        • Pozorciakova K.
        • Snahnicanova Z.
        • Jancinova M.
        • Banovcin P.
        Short-term metabolic control and sleep in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 2018; 32: 580-585
        • Leproult R.
        • Holmbäck U.
        • Van Cauter E.
        Circadian misalignment augments markers of insulin resistance and inflammation, independently of sleep loss.
        Diabetes. 2014; 63: 1860-1869
        • Macaulay G.C.
        • Galland B.C.
        • Boucher S.E.
        • Wiltshire E.J.
        • Haszard J.J.
        • Campbell A.J.
        • Wheeler B.J.
        Impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus, glucose levels, and glycemic control on sleep in children and adolescents: A case–control study.
        Sleep. 2020; 43: zsz226
        • Matyka K.A.
        • Crawford C.
        • Wiggs L.
        • Dunger D.B.
        • Stores G.
        Alterations in sleep physiology in young children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Relationship to nocturnal hypoglycemia.
        The Journal of Pediatrics. 2000; 137: 233-238
        • Mayer-Davis E.J.
        • Lawrence J.M.
        • Dabelea D.
        • Divers J.
        • Isom S.
        • Dolan L.
        • Pettitt D.J.
        Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002–2012.
        The New England Journal of Medicine. 2017; 376: 1419-1429
        • McDonough R.J.
        • Clements M.A.
        • DeLurgio S.A.
        • Patton S.R.
        Sleep duration and its impact on adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2017; 18: 262-270
        • Miller K.M.
        • Foster N.C.
        • Beck R.W.
        • Bergenstal R.M.
        • DuBose S.N.
        • DiMeglio L.A.
        • Tamborlane W.V.
        Current state of type 1 diabetes treatment in the US: Updated data from the T1D exchange clinic registry.
        Diabetes Care. 2015; 38: 971-978
        • Monaghan M.
        • Herbert L.J.
        • Cogen F.R.
        • Streisand R.
        Sleep behaviors and parent functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.
        Children’s Health Care. 2012; 41: 246-259
        • Patel N.J.
        • Savin K.L.
        • Kahanda S.N.
        • Malow B.A.
        • Williams L.A.
        • Lochbihler G.
        • Jaser S.S.
        Sleep habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Variability in sleep duration linked with glycemic control.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2018; 19: 1100-1106
        • Perfect M.M.
        • Patel P.G.
        • Scott R.E.
        • Wheeler M.D.
        • Patel C.
        • Griffin K.
        • Quan S.F.
        Sleep, glucose, and daytime functioning in youth with type 1 diabetes.
        Sleep. 2012; 35: 81-88
        • Pillar G.
        • Schuscheim G.
        • Weiss R.
        • Malhotra A.
        • McCowen K.C.
        • Shlitner A.
        • Shehadeh N.
        Interactions between hypoglycemia and sleep architecture in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        The Journal of Pediatrics. 2003; 142: 163-168
        • Reutrakul S.
        • Thakkinstian A.
        • Anothaisintawee T.
        • Chontong S.
        • Borel A.-L.
        • Perfect M.M.
        • Harsch I.A.
        Sleep characteristics in type 1 diabetes and associations with glycemic control: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sleep Medicine. 2016; 23: 26-45
        • Saylor J.
        • Ji X.
        • Calamaro C.J.
        • Davey A.
        Does sleep duration, napping, and social jetlag predict hemoglobin A1c among college students with type 1 diabetes mellitus?.
        Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2019; 148: 102-109
        • Secrest A.
        • Becker D.
        • Kelsey S.
        • Laporte R.
        • Orchard T.
        Characterizing sudden death and dead-in-bed syndrome in type 1 diabetes: Analysis from two childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes registries.
        Diabetic Medicine. 2011; 28: 293-300
        • Sivertsen B.
        • Petrie K.J.
        • Wilhelmsen-Langeland A.
        • Hysing M.
        Mental health in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: Results from a large population-based study.
        BMC Endocrine Disorders. 2014; 14: 1-8
        • Stettler C.
        • Allemann S.
        • Jüni P.
        • Cull C.A.
        • Holman R.R.
        • Egger M.
        • Diem P.
        Glycemic control and macrovascular disease in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: Meta-analysis of randomized trials.
        American Heart Journal. 2006; 152: 27-38
        • Turner S.L.
        • Queen T.L.
        • Butner J.
        • Wiebe D.
        • Berg C.A.
        Variations in daily sleep quality and type 1 diabetes management in late adolescents.
        Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2016; 41: 661-669
        • Urbanek J.K.
        • Spira A.P.
        • Di J.
        • Leroux A.
        • Crainiceanu C.
        • Zipunnikov V.
        Epidemiology of objectively measured bedtime and chronotype in US adolescents and adults: NHANES 2003–2006.
        Chronobiology International. 2018; 35: 416-434
        • Villa M.
        • Multari G.
        • Montesano M.
        • Pagani J.
        • Cervoni M.
        • Midulla F.
        • Ronchetti R.
        Sleep apnoea in children with diabetes mellitus: Effect of glycaemic control.
        Diabetologia. 2000; 43: 696-702
        • Von Schnurbein J.
        • Boettcher C.
        • Brandt S.
        • Karges B.
        • Dunstheimer D.
        • Galler A.
        • Wabitsch M.
        Sleep and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2018; 19: 143-149
        • Yeshayahu Y.
        • Mahmud F.H.
        Altered sleep patterns in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Implications for insulin regimen.
        Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: e142