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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: An Integrative Review

      Highlights

      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) was feasible and acceptable in adolescents with T1D.
      • CBT shows promise in improving diabetes management outcomes.
      • CBT improves self-efficacy, stress, and quality of life.
      • Online delivery of CBT was effective in adolescents with T1D.

      Abstract

      Problem

      Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a complex chronic condition that impacts physiologic and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents. Adolescents with T1D experience anxiety and depressive symptoms at 2 to 3 times the rate of the general adolescent population. Anxiety and depressive symptoms negatively impact disease management. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered the gold standard therapeutic technique for treating anxiety and depressive symptoms. The aim of this integrative review was to examine and synthesize the extant literature exploring the effect of CBT on physiologic and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with T1D.

      Eligibility criteria

      Electronic databases were searched with the terms “type 1 diabetes” and “cognitive behavioral therapy.” Studies were included if they were published between 2000 and 2020, evaluated a pediatric population (≤18 years of age), and included individuals with diagnosed T1D.

      Sample

      475 articles were identified in our initial search, and after removal of duplicates 353 articles remained. 339 did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of 14 papers met inclusion criteria.

      Results

      All studies included CBT, but differed in delivery methods. Several studies demonstrated evidence of the feasibility and acceptability; however, there were mixed results regarding improvement of physiologic and psychosocial outcomes.

      Conclusions

      CBT is a feasible and acceptable intervention in adolescents with T1D. It may be a method of improving psychologic and psychosocial outcomes for this high-risk population.

      Implications

      In adolescents with T1D, screening and treatment for psychosocial comorbidities should occur regularly at endocrinology visits. CBT can be operationalized to fill this gap.

      Keywords

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