Effectiveness of music during cardiac catheterization on children's pain, fear, anxiety and vital signs: A randomized, blind controlled trial

Published:March 09, 2022DOI:


      • Pediatric cardiac catheterization is a source of pain, which cannot be fully treated with medications.
      • Music therapy during pediatric cardiac catheterization has an effect on reduction of pain, fear, anxiety.
      • Music therapy has an effect on stabilization of vital signs.
      • Nurses can improve children's comfort by using musical interventions.



      This study aims to examine the effectiveness of music during pediatric cardiac catheterization procedure on children's pain, fear, anxiety and vital signs.

      Design and methods

      This randomized, blind controlled study was conducted with the guidelines of Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). The sample of children was allocated to the Control Group, the Classic Music Group, and the Self-Selected Group. Pain, fear, and anxiety levels were measured before and after the pediatric cardiac catheterization procedure. Vital signs were measured before, during, and after the pediatric cardiac catheterization procedure.


      There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic status, pain, fear, or anxiety levels and vital signs before the procedure. In post pediatric cardiac catheterization measurement in the recovery phase, pain, fear levels, anxiety levels, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of children in the musical intervention groups were lower than the control group. No statistical difference was found in terms of pain, fear and anxiety levels of the children in groups Classic and Self-Selected.

      Conclusion and practice implications

      The result of this research reveals that musical intervention applied during the pediatric cardiac catheterization procedure in children affects the reduction of pain, fear and anxiety levels and stabilization of vital signs. This intervention could be an effective nonpharmacological method to improve outcomes.Nurses can improve children's comfort by using musical interventions.
      Clinical Registration: This study was registered at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Clinical Trials (code: NCT04316754).


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