Advertisement

Developing the Chinese version problem areas in diabetes-teen for measuring diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Published:February 28, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2022.02.011

      Highlights

      • The Chinese version PAID-T is a validated and ease-to-use scale.
      • The Chinese version PAID-T can assess diabetes distress for adolescents.
      • The Chinese version PAID-T can identify specific sources of diabetes distress.
      • Nurses can use the Chinese version PAID-T to tailor interventions for adolescents.
      • The Chinese version PAID-T can conduct research on diabetes distress for adolescents.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To translate the 26-item English version Problem Areas in Diabetes-Teen (PAID-T) into a Chinese version and then to examine its psychometrical properties for measuring diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

      Design and methods

      The 26-item English version PAID-T was translated into a Chinese version guided by the translation model for cross-cultural research. A cross-sectional design was used and 203 adolescents with T1D were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Content validity, exploratory factor analysis, and item analysis were used to ensure the item quality and build the factor structure of the Chinese version PAID-T. Confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent validity, and reliability testing were also used to examine its psychometric properties.

      Results

      The three second-order factors of the 18-item Chinese version PAID-T were developed. The correlation coefficients of the three-factor Chinese version PAID-T with self-management and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were all significant and ranged from −0.32 to −0.45 and 0.18 to 0.33 respectively. Cronbach's α and the test–retest reliability of the three-factor Chinese version PAID-T ranged from 0.85 to 0.93 and from 0.89 to 0.94 respectively.

      Conclusions

      The Chinese version PAID-T with good translation quality was a reliable and valid scale to screen and assess diabetes distress for adolescents with T1D.

      Practice implications

      Nurses could use the Chinese version PAID-T to track diabetes distress and tailor interventions for adolescents with T1D; also, the Chinese version PAID-T could facilitate the conducting of research on diabetes distress for adolescents with T1D.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      References

        • American Diabetes Association
        13. Children and adolescents: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2021.
        Diabetes Care. 2021; 44: S180-S199
        • Brown T.A.
        Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research.
        2nd ed. Guilford, 2015: 74-309
        • Chen C.Y.
        • Lo F.S.
        • Chen B.H.
        • Lu M.H.
        • Hsin Y.M.
        • Wang R.H.
        Pathways of emotional autonomy, self-care behaviors, and depressive symptoms on health adaptation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
        Nursing Outlook. 2017; 65: 68-76
        • Delamater A.M.
        • de Wit M.
        • McDarby V.
        • Malik J.A.
        • Hilliard M.E.
        • Northam E.
        • Acerini C.L.
        ISPAD clinical practice consensus guidelines 2018: Psychological care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2018; 19: 237-249
        • Fan H.
        • Wang W.
        Hierarchical needs and psychological disorders in China.
        in: Wang W. Chinese perspectives on cultural psychiatry: Psychological disorders in “a dream of red mansions” and contemporary society. Springer, 2019: 1-19
        • Ferketich S.
        Focus on psychometrics. Aspects of item analysis.
        Research in Nursing & Health. 1991; 14: 165-168
        • Fisher L.
        • Gonzalez J.S.
        • Polonsky W.H.
        The confusing tale of depression and distress in patients with diabetes: A call for greater clarity and precision.
        Diabetic Medicine. 2014; 31: 764-772
        • Fisher L.
        • Polonsky W.H.
        • Hessler D.
        Addressing diabetes distress in clinical care: A practical guide.
        Diabetic Medicine. 2019; 36: 803-812
        • Fokkema M.
        • Greiff S.
        How performing PCA and CFA on the same data equals trouble.
        European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2017; 33: 399-402
        • Hagger V.
        • Hendrieckx C.
        • Sturt J.
        • Skinner T.C.
        • Speight J.
        Diabetes distress among adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review.
        Current Diabetes Reports. 2016; 16: 9
        • Hair J.F.
        • Black W.C.
        • Babin B.J.
        • Anderson R.E.
        Structural equation modeling overview.
        in: Hair J.F. Black W.C. Babin B.J. Anderson R.E. Multivariate data analysis. 7th ed. Prentice Hall, 2010: 541-598
        • Hilliard M.E.
        • De Wit M.
        • Wasserman R.M.
        • Butler A.M.
        • Evans M.
        • Weissberg-Benchell J.
        • Anderson B.J.
        Screening and support for emotional burdens of youth with type 1 diabetes: Strategies for diabetes care providers.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2018; 19: 534-543
        • Hsu H.C.
        • Chang Y.H.
        • Lee P.J.
        • Chen S.Y.
        • Hsieh C.H.
        • Lee Y.J.
        • Wang R.H.
        Developing and psychometric testing of a short-form problem areas in diabetes scale in Chinese patients.
        Journal of Nursing Research. 2013; 21: 212-217
        • Huang M.F.
        • Courtney M.
        • Edwards H.
        • McDowell J.
        Validation of the Chinese version of the problem areas in diabetes (PAID-C) scale.
        Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 38-40
        • Iturralde E.
        • Rausch J.R.
        • Weissberg-Benchell J.
        • Hood K.K.
        Diabetes-related emotional distress over time.
        Pediatrics. 2019; 143 (Article e20183011)
        • King K.M.
        • King P.J.
        • Nayar R.
        • Wilkes S.
        Perceptions of adolescent patients of the “lived experience” of type 1 diabetes.
        Diabetes Spectrum: A Publication of the American Diabetes Association. 2017; 30: 23-35
        • Lee S.L.
        • Chen B.H.
        • Wong S.L.
        • Chang S.C.
        • Tsai M.C.
        • Wang R.H.
        Psychometric testing of the short-form Chinese version of the self-management for adolescents with type 1 diabetes scale.
        Research in Nursing & Health. 2018; 41: 563-571
        • Lin P.Y.
        • Lee T.Y.
        • Liu C.Y.
        • Lee Y.J.
        The effect of self-efficacy in self-management on diabetes distress in young people with type 2 diabetes.
        Healthcare. 2021; 9: 1736
        • Lin S.C.
        Social stratification and education.
        in: Lin S.C. Educational sociology. 4th ed. Chuliu, 2005: 41-81
        • Lu M.C.
        • Juan C.Y.
        • Koo M.
        • Lai N.S.
        Higher incidence of psychiatrist-diagnosed depression in Taiwanese female school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study.
        Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2017; 27: 281-284
        • Markowitz J.T.
        • Volkening L.K.
        • Butler D.A.
        • Laffel L.M.
        Youth-perceived burden of type 1 diabetes: Problem areas in diabetes survey–pediatric version (PAID-Peds).
        Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2015; 9 (https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1932296815583506): 1080-1085
        • McGraw K.O.
        • Wong S.P.
        Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients.
        Psychological Methods. 1996; 1: 30-46
        • Parvizi S.
        • Hamzehgardeshi Z.
        Adolescents’ view of health concept and its risk factors: A literature review.
        International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2014; 26: 351-359
        • Polit D.F.
        • Beck C.T.
        The content validity index: Are you sure you know what’s being reported? Critique and recommendations.
        Research in Nursing & Health. 2006; 29: 489-497
        • Polonsky W.H.
        • Anderson B.J.
        • Lohrer P.A.
        • Welch G.
        • Jacobson A.M.
        • Aponte J.E.
        • Schwartz C.E.
        Assessment of diabetes-related distress.
        Diabetes Care. 1995; 18: 754-760
        • Polonsky W.H.
        • Fisher L.
        • Earles J.
        • Dudl R.J.
        • Lees J.
        • Mullan J.
        • Jackson R.A.
        Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes: Development of the diabetes distress scale.
        Diabetes Care. 2005; 28: 626-631
        • Portney L.G.
        • Watkins M.P.
        Foundations of clinical research: Applications to practice.
        3rd ed. F. A. Davis Company, 2015: 82-84
        • Shapiro J.B.
        • Vesco A.T.
        • Weil L.E.
        • Evans M.A.
        • Hood K.K.
        • Weissberg-Benchell J.
        Psychometric properties of the problem areas in diabetes: Teen and parent of teen versions.
        Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2018; 43: 561-571
        • Skinner T.C.
        • Joensen L.
        • Parkin T.
        Twenty-five years of diabetes distress research.
        Diabetic Medicine. 2020; 37: 393-400
        • Snoek F.J.
        • Bremmer M.A.
        • Hermanns N.
        Constructs of depression and distress in diabetes: Time for an appraisal.
        The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2015; 3: 450-460
        • Sousa V.D.
        • Rojjanasrirat W.
        Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: A clear and user-friendly guideline.
        Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2011; 17: 268-274
        • Tavakol M.
        • Dennick R.
        Making sense of Cronbach's alpha.
        International Journal of Medical Education. 2011; 2: 53-55
        • Wang Y.
        • Liu X.
        • Cui L.
        Influential factors of emotional display rules in Chinese adolescents.
        Psychology. 2012; 3: 504-506
        • Weissberg-Benchell J.
        • Antisdel-Lomaglio J.
        Diabetes-specific emotional distress among adolescents: Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the problem areas in diabetes-teen version.
        Pediatric Diabetes. 2011; 12: 341-344
        • World Health Organization
        Adolescent health.