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The concept of pain inventory for children: The reliability and validity study of the Turkish version

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Postal address: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karaman, Turkey.
    Vildan Apaydin Cirik
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Footnotes
    1 Postal address: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karaman, Turkey.
    Affiliations
    Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Midwifery, Child Health Nursing, Karaman, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Postal address: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Elif Bulut
    Footnotes
    2 Postal address: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Affiliations
    Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Child Health Nursing Department, Trabzon, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    3 Postal address: Gumushane University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus, Gumushane, Turkey.
    Bahar Aksoy
    Footnotes
    3 Postal address: Gumushane University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus, Gumushane, Turkey.
    Affiliations
    Gumushane University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Child Health Nursing Department, Gumushane, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    4 Postal address: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Hatice Sonay Yalçin Cömert
    Footnotes
    4 Postal address: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Affiliations
    Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Trabzon, Turkey
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  • Author Footnotes
    5 Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Joshua W. Pate
    Footnotes
    5 Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Affiliations
    Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Postal address: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karaman, Turkey.
    2 Postal address: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey.
    3 Postal address: Gumushane University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Campus, Gumushane, Turkey.
    4 Postal address: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.
    5 Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

      Highlights

      • The scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool for evaluating the concept of pain in children aged 8–12.
      • Health care professionals, especially nurses, can evaluate children's pain concepts using this scale.
      • The scale can be used for targeted pain science education and the effectiveness of the education.

      Abstract

      Background and purpose

      Pain experiences in childhood are very likely to be reflected in adulthood. The early evaluation of the concept of pain in children may eventually lead to.
      better patient outcomes in the future. Therefore, we aimed to culturally and developmentally adapt the Concept of Pain Inventory for Children (COPI) for Turkish children.

      Methods

      This descriptive, correlational study was conducted with 239 post-operative children aged 8–12 years between June and December 2021. The research adhered to COSMIN guidelines. The data were collected using a descriptive information form and the COPI. Factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and item–total score analysis were used for the data analysis.

      Results

      The resulting unidimensional scale consists of 12 items in Turkish. The scale explained 65% of the total variance. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of items ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of items ranged from 0.66 to 0.92. Goodness of fit indexes were found to be as follows: Normed Fit Index >0.90; Incremental Fit Index >0.90; Comparative Fit Index >0.90; and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation <0.08. The total Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.78 (reliable).

      Conclusions

      The 12-item Turkish translation of the COPI was deemed valid and reliable in 8–12-year-old children in a post-operative setting.

      Practice implications

      Evaluation of children's pain concepts during childhood may contribute to the identification of conceptual gaps for pain science education.

      Keywords

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