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Related factors associated with fear of hypoglycemia in parents of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes - A systematic review

      Highlights

      • Motherhood, nocturnal hypoglycemia, and the number of blood glucose monitoring were correlated with parental FOH.
      • Psychological factors were conclusive and showed small-to-strong associations with parental fear of hypoglycemia.
      • Effective targeted interventions based on relevant factors can be developed to reduce the fear of hypoglycemia in parents.

      Abstract

      Problem

      Fear of hypoglycemia is a significant concern for parents of children/ adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Although some studies have explained the parental fear of hypoglycemia, the related factors were yet to be determined. This systematic review aims to identify the related factors of fear of hypoglycemia in the parents of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and provide a theoretical basis for further intervention.

      Eligibility criteria

      PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched from 2010 to 2021. Studies evaluating the fear of hypoglycemia of parents and its associated factors were included.

      Sample

      Twenty-three observational articles met the criteria.

      Results

      Significant associations were found between fear of hypoglycemia and specific factors, including motherhood, nocturnal hypoglycemia, and the number of blood glucose monitoring. Psychological factors, including anxiety, depression, pediatric parenting stress, mindfulness, self-efficacy, quality of life, and sleep disorders, were conclusive and associations with parental fear of hypoglycemia.

      Conclusions

      Understanding parental fear of hypoglycemia can help parents prevent potential problems in diabetes management, thus promoting children's growth. According to current evidence, effective targeted interventions based on modifiable relevant factors can be developed to reduce the fear of hypoglycemia in parents while maintaining optimal blood glucose control in children/ adolescents.

      Implications

      Health professionals should pay more attention to the mental health of parents, and parents should be involved in the care plan and have the opportunity to discuss their fear of hypoglycemia in the most appropriate way to manage type 1 diabetes.

      Keywords

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