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Child's perceived stress: A concept analysis

      Highlights

      • Children perceived stress from a variety of sources including daily struggles
      • Child's perceived stress is any real or imagined stressor specific to childhood
      • Child's perceived stress is a complex concept to measure
      • Consequences of child's perceived stress may be physical, emotional, or behavioral

      Abstract

      Problem

      Child's perceived stress is a term used widely in literature, yet it is poorly defined. Perceived stress in childhood has been linked to negative health outcomes throughout the lifespan. Therefore, the ability of researchers and healthcare providers to conceptualize child's perceived stress and form accurate measures of the concept is of utmost importance.

      Eligibility criteria

      Following the eight steps identified by Walker and Avant, a literature review was conducted to identify studies that measured perceived stress in school-age children over the last 10 years.

      Sample

      Of 914 records identified, 136 were screened, and 16 met inclusion criteria.

      Results

      Child's perceived stress is best defined as any actual or imagined threat, personal and specific to childhood, which overwhelms the child and leads to changes in emotional, psychological, developmental, and/or physiological domains.

      Conclusions

      While the concept of child's perceived stress is understood similarly throughout studies, there is notable variation in the way child's perceived stress is measured. Because of the specificity of perceived stress to childhood, and the wide range of what may be perceived as stressful by the child, the child is the best reporter of child's perceived stress.

      Implications

      Researchers and clinicians must use child self-report tools to measure the concept of child's perceived stress. Opportunities exist for healthcare workers to intervene, educate, and help children and families recognize and manage child's perceived stress. This concept analysis includes many resources that practitioners may use to help alleviate stress in children.

      Keywords

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