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Effectiveness of stress ball and relaxation exercises on polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) test-induced fear and pain in adolescents in Türkiye

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Postal address: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karaman, Türkiye.
    Vildan Apaydin Cirik
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Footnotes
    1 Postal address: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karaman, Türkiye.
    Affiliations
    Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Midwifery, Child Health and Disease Nursing, Karaman, Türkiye
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Postal address: Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Health Science Faculty, Nursing Department, Child Health and Disease Nursing, Karaman/ Türkiye.
    Ayse Sonay Türkmen
    Footnotes
    2 Postal address: Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Health Science Faculty, Nursing Department, Child Health and Disease Nursing, Karaman/ Türkiye.
    Affiliations
    Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Health Science Faculty, Nursing Department, Child Health and Disease Nursing, Karaman, Türkiye
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  • Author Footnotes
    3 Postal address: Karaman Education and Research Hospital Karaman/ Türkiye.
    Merih Ayaz
    Footnotes
    3 Postal address: Karaman Education and Research Hospital Karaman/ Türkiye.
    Affiliations
    Karaman Education and Research Hospital Karaman, Türkiye
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Postal address: Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karaman, Türkiye.
    2 Postal address: Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Health Science Faculty, Nursing Department, Child Health and Disease Nursing, Karaman/ Türkiye.
    3 Postal address: Karaman Education and Research Hospital Karaman/ Türkiye.
Published:December 14, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2022.12.001

      Highlights

      • To reduce the negative effects of the PCR test in adolescents, it is important to use attracting attention methods.
      • Stress ball and relaxation exercises were found to be effective in reducing the pain and fear levels of adolescents.
      • It is recommended that in-service training should be planned for health professionals to use the methods.
      • It is recommended to spread the use of these non-invasive nursing interventions in PCR testing in health institutions.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of stress balls and relaxation exercises in relieving PCR test-induced fear and pain in adolescents.

      Design and methods

      A randomized controlled experimental study with a parallel-group design was conducted. The sample size was determined by G*Power analysis, and 32 adolescents were included in each group accordingly. The data were collected using the Adolescent and Parent Information Form, The Children's Fear Scale, and The Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale. Descriptive statistics, t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA, and Tukey's forward analysis were used to analyze the data.

      Results

      The mean age was 14.93 ± 2.07 years for the adolescents, 43.58 ± 4.50 years for the mothers, and 48.25 ± 4.92 years for the fathers. Adolescents were stratified according to age, gender, and fear of invasive procedures, and homogeneity was ensured in their distribution to the groups. The pre-procedural level of fear was moderate in each group with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, a significant difference was found between the groups in terms of both post-procedure levels of fear and pain. The pre-procedural fear of the adolescents in the control group (3.91 ± 0.29) did not change much after the procedure (3.91 ± 0.30), while there was a decrease in the other groups. The least post-procedure fear (0.09 ± 0.29) and pain (0.44 ± 0.67) were found to be in the relaxation exercise group.

      Conclusions and practice implications

      Relaxation exercise is the most effective method to reduce fear and pain during the PCR procedure. It is recommended to use it during the PCR procedure for being easily accessible, applicable, and cost-effective.
      Clinical Trials ID: NCT05250544.

      Keywords

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