Development and validation of the parents' healthcare needs scale for adolescents with congenital heart disease

Published:December 16, 2022DOI:



      The healthcare needs of parents of adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been under-investigated as no valid and reliable tools have been developed for assessing their needs. Therefore, this study aims to develop and validate the Parents' Healthcare Needs Scale for adolescents with CHD (PHNS-CHD).

      Design and methods

      A multi-method approach and multi-phase design were employed. Phase one referred to generating scale items based on emerging themes in the literature, and phase two showed the validation process, divided into three steps. Step one tested the content and face validity of the first version of the PHNS-CHD. After that, step two described the initial psychometric validation process of scale using an exploratory factorial analysis (EFA). Then, step three confirmed the PHNS-CHD factorial structure and assessed its internal consistency.


      The PHNS-CHD showed evidence of face and content validity, adequate construct, and internal consistency and stability. Specifically, it had 22 items grouped into five domains, labeled as follows: Healthcare education to the child; to be supported as a parent, clinical support to the child, the continuum of care to the child; emotional support to the child.


      The PHNS-CHD is a psychometrically robust measure for assessing the healthcare needs of parents of adolescents with CHD.

      Practice implications

      The PHNS-CHD might help clinicians, especially pediatric nurses, assess the healthcare needs of parents of adolescents with CHD and design adequate care plans for the whole family.


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