The effect of therapeutic touch and music rest on sleep parameters in children with liver transplantation

Published:December 16, 2022DOI:


      • Although music is often used to support children's sleep, interest in bioenergy applications is also increasing.
      • Non-pharmacological methods are valuable in order not to increase the burden of the liver in children with transplantation.
      • In this study, it was determined that therapeutic touch and music applications had positive effects on the sleep parameters.



      This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of therapeutic touch and music rest on the sleep of children with liver transplantation.

      Design and methods

      The data of the study were collected between February 2021 and November 2021. The study was completed with 50 patients included in the therapeutic touch and music rest groups. Therapeutic touch and music practices were applied for three consecutive days, once a day and 20 min. Before and after the practices, the 24-h sleep of the children was evaluated with actigraphy.


      It was determined that the time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency of the children in the therapeutic touch group increased after the procedure. On the other hand, it was determined that the time in bed, and total sleep time increased, and the onset latency decreased after the procedure in the children in the music rest group. It was determined that the effects of therapeutic touch and music rest applications on sleep parameters after the procedure were similar.


      It has been determined that therapeutic touch and music rest applications have an improving effect on the sleep of children with liver transplantation.

      Practice implications

      Music rest and therapeutic touch, which are non-pharmacological methods that do not increase the burden of the liver, can be used by health professionals to support the sleep of children with liver transplantation.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


        • ACOG - AAP
        Giudelines for perinatal care 7th edition.
        • Akın B.
        Cultural memory and music.
        Eurasian Journal of Music and Dance. 2018; 13: 101-117
        • Alfano C.A.
        Foster agency workers’ perceptions of sleep health among children in foster care.
        Children and Youth Services Review. 2020; 117105316
        • Ansari S.
        • AdibSaber F.
        • Elmieh A.
        • Gholamrezaei S.
        The effect of water-based intervention on sleep habits and two sleep-related cytokines in children with autism.
        Sleep Medicine. 2021; 82: 78-83
        • Aygin D.
        • Şen S.
        Acupressure on anxiety and sleep quality after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial.
        Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. 2019; 34: 1222-1231
        • Bağcı H.
        • Çınar Yücel Ş.
        Effect of therapeutic touch on sleep quality in elders living at nursing homes.
        Journal of Religion and Health. 2020; 59: 1304-1318
        • Bang Y.Y.
        • Park H.
        Effects of auricular acupressure on the quality of sleep and anxiety in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial.
        Applied Nursing Research. 2020; 53151269
        • Barrett B.
        • Harden C.M.
        • Brown R.L.
        • Coe C.L.
        • Irwin M.R.
        Mindfulness meditation and exercise both improve sleep quality: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of community dwelling adults.
        Sleep Health. 2020; 3: 1-10
        • Berglund B.
        • Lindvall T.
        • Schwela D.H.
        New who guidelines for community noise.
        Noise & Vibration Worldwide. 2000; 31: 24-29
        • Bukowski E.L.
        • Berardi D.
        Reiki brief report: Using reiki to reduce stress levels in a nine-year-old child.
        Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 2014; 10: 253-255
        • Burrai F.
        • Sanna G.D.
        • Moccia E.
        • Morlando F.
        • Cosentino E.R.
        • Bui V.
        • Micheluzzi V.
        • Borghi C.
        • Parodi G.
        Beneficial effects of listening to classical music in patients with heart failure: A randomized controlled trial.
        Journal of Cardiac Failure. 2020; 26: 541-549
        • Çalışkan M.A.
        • Cerit B.
        Effect of therapeutic touch on sleep quality and anxiety in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial.
        Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021; 45101481
        • Çam Yanık T.
        • Altun Uğraş G.
        The effect of using acupressure on sleep quality after surgery.
        University of Health Sciences Journal of Nursing. 2020; 2: 105-112
        • Chen P.
        • Yao H.
        • Su W.
        • He Y.
        • Cheng K.
        • Wang Y.
        • Peng W.
        • Li P.
        Sleep deprivation worsened oral ulcers and delayed healing process in an experimental rat model.
        Life Sciences. 2019; 232116594
        • Chouchou F.
        • Khoury S.
        • Chauny J.M.
        • Denis R.
        • Lavigne G.J.
        Postoperative sleep disruptions: A potential catalyst of acute pain?.
        Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2014; 18: 273-282
        • Christensen M.
        Noise levels in a general surgical Ward: A descriptive study.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2005; 14: 156-164
        • Coppola G.
        • Toro A.
        • Operto F.F.
        • Ferrarioli G.
        • Pisano S.
        • Viggiano A.
        • Verrotti A.
        Mozart’s music in children with drug-refractory epileptic encephalopathies.
        Epilepsy and Behavior. 2015; 50: 18-22
        • Cox C.
        • Hayes J.
        Physiologic andpsychodynamic responses to the administration of therapeutic touch in critical care.
        Intensive & Critical Care Nursing. 1999; 15: 363-368
        • Dolan R.
        • Huh J.
        • Tiwari N.
        • Sproat T.
        • Camilleri-Brennan J.
        A prospective analysis of sleep deprivation and disturbance in surgical patients.
        Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 2016; 6: 1-5
        • Efendi D.
        • Caswini N.
        • Rustina Y.
        • Iskandar R.A.T.P.
        Combination of mother therapeutic touch (MTT) and maternal voice stimulus (MVS) therapies stabilize sleep and physiological function in preterm infants receiving minor invasive procedures.
        Journal of Neonatal Nursing. 2018; 24: 318-324
        • Ergün S.
        • Duran S.
        • Gültekin M.
        • Yanar S.
        Evaluation of the factors which affect the sleep habit and quality of health college students.
        Turkish Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2017; 11: 186-193
        • Ertan P.
        • Alkan S.
        Actigraphy applications in children.
        Turkish J. Pediatr. Dis. 2012; 6: 59-64
        • Fredericks E.M.
        • Dore-Stites D.
        • Calderon S.Y.
        • Well A.
        • Eder S.J.
        • Magee J.C.
        • Lopez M.J.
        The relationship between sleep problems and health related quality of life among pediatric liver transplant recipients.
        Bone. 2012; 18: 707-715
        • Golem D.
        • Eck K.M.
        • Delaney C.L.
        • Clark R.L.
        • Shelnutt K.P.
        • Olfert M.D.
        • Byrd-Bredbenner C.
        “My stuffed animals help me”: The importance, barriers, and strategies for adequate sleep behaviors of school-age children and parents.
        Sleep Health. 2019; 5: 152-160
        • Gong M.
        • Hu X.
        • Tan S.
        • Jing S.
        • Wang Y.
        • Li Y.
        • Li S.
        Efficacy of exercise on sleep quality and insomnia–a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Psychiatry Research. 2020; 113442
        • Hanley M.A.
        Therapeutic touch with preterm infants: Composing a treatment.
        Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 2008; 4: 249-258
        • He K.
        • Shen C.
        • Chen X.
        • Han L.
        • Xi Z.
        • Zhou T.
        • Zhang J.
        • Xia Q.
        Health-related quality of life and sleep among Chinese children after living donor liver transplantation.
        Pediatric Transplantation. 2015; 19: 547-554
        • Hedlund E.R.
        • Villard L.
        • Lundell B.
        • Sjöberg G.
        Physical exercise may improve sleep quality in children and adolescents with Fontan circulation.
        Cardiology in the Young. 2019; 29: 922-929
        • Hillman D.R.
        Postoperative sleep disturbances: Understanding and emerging therapies.
        Advances in Anesthesia. 2017; 35 (08.09.2020): 1-24
        • Hybschmann J.
        • Topperzer M.K.
        • Gjærde L.K.
        • Born P.
        • Mathiasen R.
        • Sehested A.M.
        • Sørensen J.L.
        Sleep in hospitalized children and adolescents: A scoping review.
        Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2021; 59101496
        • James L.E.
        • Gottschlich M.M.
        • Nelson J.K.
        • Cone L.C.
        • McCall J.E.
        Pediatric perioperative measures of sleep, pain, anxiety and anesthesia emergence: A healing touch proof of concept randomized clinical trial.
        Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019; 42: 264-269
        • Jodaki K.
        • Abdi K.
        • Mousavi M.S.
        • Mokhtari R.
        • Asayesh H.
        • Vandali V.
        • Golitaleb M.
        Effect of Rosa damascene aromatherapy on anxiety and sleep quality in cardiac patients: A randomized controlled trial.
        Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021; 42101299
        • Karamızrak N.
        Music therapy in cardiovascular diseases.
        Kosuyolu Heart Journal. 2019; 22: 120-125
        • Kazoğlu M.
        • Yürük Z.Ö.
        An investigation of sleep quality and fatigue levels in the elderly living in nursing homes and home.
        Journal of Exercise Therapy and Rehabilitation. 2020; 7: 145-153
        • Kim J.
        • Stegemann T.
        Music listening for children and adolescents in health care contexts: A systematic review.
        The Arts in Psychotherapy. 2016; 51: 72-85
        • Krieger D.
        Therapeutic touch: The imprimatur of nursing.
        American Journal of Nursing. 1975; 75: 784-787
        • Loewy J.
        • Hallan C.
        • Friedman E.
        • Martinez C.
        Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: A comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy.
        Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. 2005; 20: 323-331
        • Marta I.E.R.
        • Baldan S.S.
        • Berton A.F.
        • Pavam M.
        • da Silva M.J.P.
        The effectiveness of therapeutic touch on pain, depression and sleep in patients with chronic pain: Clinical trial.
        Revista Da Escola de Enfermagem. 2010; 44: 1100-1106
        • Mendes K.D.S.
        • Lopes A.R.F.
        • Martins T.A.
        • Lopes G.F.
        • Ziviani L.C.
        • Rossin F.M.
        • Castro-E-Silva O.
        • Galvão C.M.
        Relevance of anxiety and stress levels on sleep quality after liver transplantation.
        Transplantation Proceedings. 2014; 46: 1822-1826
        • Petersen I.
        • Noelle J.
        • Buchholz A.
        • Kroencke S.
        • Daseking M.
        • Grabhorn E.
        Fatigue in pediatric liver transplant recipients and its impact on their quality of life.
        Pediatric Transplantation. 2019; 23: 1-10
        • Rabbitts J.A.
        • Groenewald C.B.
        • Tai G.G.
        • Palermo T.M.
        Presurgical psychosocial predictors of acute postsurgical pain and quality of life in children undergoing major surgery.
        Physiology & Behavior. 2015; 16: 139-148
        • Shabnam J.
        • Mahsa A.
        • Manoochehr M.
        • Sonia O.
        Effect of music on the growth monitoring of low birth weight newborns.
        International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2021; 14100312
        • Spadola C.E.
        • Rottapel R.E.
        • Zhou E.S.
        • Chen J.T.
        • Guo N.
        • Khalsa S.B.S.
        • Redline S.
        • Bertisch S.M.
        A sleep hygiene and yoga intervention conducted in affordable housing communities: Pilot study results and lessons for a future trial.
        Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2020; 39101121
        • Vural Doğru B.
        • Utli H.
        • Şenuzun Aykar F.
        Effect of therapeutic touch on daytime sleepiness, stress and fatigue among students of nursing and midwifery: A randomized sham-controlled trial.
        Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2021; 43101322
        • Zhu X.
        • Ming Y.
        • Liu J.
        • Liu L.
        • Cheng K.
        • Mao P.
        Sleep quality and psychosocial factors in liver transplant recipients at an outpatient follow-up clinic in China.
        Annals of Transplantation. 2020; 25: 1-8